100 TOP IBM BPM Interview Questions and Answers

IBM BPM Interview Questions :-

1. Define What is an IBM BPM?

IBM Business Process Manager (IBPM) provides a platform on which Business Processes can be described, implemented, executed and monitored.

2. Explain What are Teamworks Components?

  • Shared Model : Stores all Process, Services,Performance Data,Business Events and Conditions.
  • Process Server: Executes the Process and Services that authors build using Teamworks Authoring Environment.
  • Performance Server: Manages and aggregate Process Performance data and monitors business events and conditions.
  • Server Consoles: provide interfaces that enables administrator to configure and maintain the Process Server and performance Server other users may have limited access to change password and perform other basic tasks.
  • Authoring Environment: Eclipse based development Environment consists of several interfaces that enable authors to Model, Simulate and Inspect processes. Available interfaces include Service Modeler, Process Inspector, Process Molder.
  • Process portal: Enables process participants to perform assigned task,view the history of task,launch any processes or services that are attached to task and view the performance of their processes andteams.Tools available from the process portal include Scoreboards.

3. What is a Process in IBM BPM ?

A process is like a Program that does works inside Teamworks. It has a starting point and at least one exit point.

4. What is an Activity in IBM BPM?

An Activity represents a logical unit of work that can be execute at run time by a Human or System.

5. What are Variables(Business Objects) in IBM BPM?

Business objects are called variables in Teamworks represent the data that provides the data that provides the business context to a running process. There are two types of variables -Simple And Complex variables have different scopes- private Input and Output.

IBM BPM Interview Questions and Answers
IBM BPM Interview Questions

6. In production one instance has been failed due to some business object has bad data or null values, How will you inject data on runtime in production?

IBPM provide some rest api which operation name is setData through that we can inject values.

7. I have one BPD, which has multiple tasks. How will you identify user in run-time and assign the task based on his role?

Its related to routing.

8. How will you start BPM from out side?

There are 4 ways:

  1. Expose as a webservice like WSDL and call it from outside and inside the BPM call in javascript ‘startBPMByProcessName()’.
  2. BPM API expose as rest service to start the BPM process.
  3. Through JMS, we can start bpm process.
  4. Through Java api we can start the bpm process.

9. What is the difference between process app and toolkit?

Process App is deployable but toolkit is not deployable it should be integrate

10. How will you maintain version in bpm?

We can create snapshot.

11. What are coaches and coach views? What is the primary function of coaches?

Coaches are the name for the web pages (user interface) that IBM Process Designers allows to work on to build the human interaction. Coach views are new in BPM v8, where they are basically re-usable templates. We can create coach views for business objects, and re-use them in multiple coaches.

12. What has changed in coaches in IBM BPM V8?

Coach views are a major addition. Improved error handline, and termination handling. Content Management integration, and other of bug fixes.

13. What are the different “Visibility” options you have in IBM BPM V8?

Default(inherited), required, editable, read-only, none (hide or disabled).

14. Define What is Teamworks?

  • Teamworks is a BPM tool developed by Lombardi Software.
  • Teamworks architecture enables all groups with with in your enterprise to collaborate to design and deploy efficient processes.
  • Teamworks also allows you to manage and analyze process performance.
  • Teamworks is having Eclipse based Authoring Environment integrates with your other development tools.

15. What is the Components of IBM BPM?

At a high level, IBPM is comprised of a number of coarse grained components. Taken together, these are the IBPM product. Each component serves a unique and distinct purpose and are employed at different stages in the development or operation of an IBPM solution. Breaking IBPM down into these constituent components both aids in the understanding of the product as well as providing a practical differentiation between phases and pieces of operation.

  • Process Server
  • Process Designer
  • Process Center
  • Performance Data Warehouse
  • Process Center Console
  • Process Portal
  • Process Admin Console

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16. What is Durable Subscription?

When a message is sent to an user who is offline, the message waits in the queue and gets delivered when the user appears online again. This phenomenon is called as “Durable Subscription”.

17. How a BPD can be divided into?

The BPD can be divided into Lanes and Milestones. The horizontal lines are called Lanes and vertical ones are called Milestones.

18. How will you access processes in BPM?

You can Start, Stop, Control and Monitor Processes using Process Portal.

19. What is an Activity in IBM BPM?

An Activity represents a logical unit of work that can be execute at run time by a Human or System.

20. What are Variables (Business Objects) in IBM BPM?

Business objects are called variables in Teamworks represent the data that provides the data that provides the business context to a running process. There are two types of variables -Simple and Complex variables have different scopes- private Input and Output.

21. How do you get an element by id in dojo?

dojo.byId(‘someId’);

22. How will you inject data on runtime in production?

IBPM provide some rest api which operation name is setData through that we can inject values.

23. What is the difference between process app and toolkit?

Process App is deployable but toolkit is not deployable it should be integrate

24. If I want to change business object type value, so what will you do?

For that we have to make change in bpd and create snapshot and redeploy it.

25. What is the current version available in market for IBM BPM?

Version 8.5

26. What is the snapshot in BPM?

Snapshot is as simple as Version management.

27. Does IBM BPM v.85 support Milestone?

No. Milestone is deprecated in V8.5. Now, It support phase instead of milestone.

28. How a BPD can be divided into?

The BPD can be divided into Lanes and Milestones. The horizontal lines are called Lanes and vertical ones are called Milestones.

29. What is Rule Set or rule group?

A rule set is a group of if/then statements or rules where the if is the condition and the then is the action of the rule. Rule sets are best suited for those business rules that have very few condition clauses.

30. What is Business State Machine?

  • Business state machines are service components that allow you to represent business processes based on states and events instead of a sequential business process model.
  • Business state machines specify the sequences of states, responses, and actions that an object or an interaction goes through in response to events.

31. What is BPC and how can it will be useful?

BPC is a Business Process Choreography. It used for monitor Process Instance, Process Template and human task Instance, Human task Template.

32. What is CGI and how it will be used?

CEI provides basic event-management services, including consolidating and persisting raw events from multiple, heterogeneous sources and distributing those events to event consumers. It provides functionality for generation, propagation, persistence, and consumption of events representing service component processes.

33. What are different types of Human Tasks?

  1. To-do task – a service schedules a piece of work for a person to perform.
  2. Invocation task – a person uses a service.
  3. Collaboration task – one person assigns work to another person.
  4. Administration task – a person is granted administrative powers over an activity or process.

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100 TOP PostgreSQL Multiple Choice Questions and Answers

PostgreSQL Multiple Choice Questions :-

Click Here —-> PostgreSQL Interview Questions

1. PostgreSQL can be used from just about any major programming language, including C, C++, Perl, Python, Java, Tcl, and PHP.
A. True
B. FALSE
Ans: A

2. A meta-command always begins with what?
A. Forwardslash character (/)
B. Dollar sign ($)
C. Backslash character (\)
D. Question mark (?)
Ans: C

3. When you want to use a join between columns that are in the same table, you use what type of join?
A. union
B. right outer
C. left outer
D. self
Ans: D

4. True or False? VACUUM FULL shrinks indexes, optimizing database performance.
A. True – This was addressed in version 9.0
B. False – This was addressed in version 9.0
Ans: A

5. True or False? When using a SELECT statement on a table, or group of tables, those resources are locked exclusively.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

PostgreSQL Multiple Choice Questions and Answers
PostgreSQL Multiple Choice Questions

6. What do you call the application that makes requests of the PostgreSQL server?
A. Workstation
B. Client
C. Thin Client
D. Interface
Ans: B

7. Which of the following best describes a role:
A. A server’s purpose within a cluster.
B. The purpose of a particular database.
C. A cluster’s purpose.
D. A template for authorization to various database objects.
Ans: D

8. The most common method to get data into a table is to use what command?
A. Insert
B. Write
C. Execute
D. Send
Ans: A

9. The basic psql command to list tables is?
A. \do
B. \dT
C. \h
D. \dt
Ans: D

10. In PostgreSQL, a named collection of tables is called what?
A. Trigger
B. View
C. Diagram
D. Schema
Ans: D

11. The heart of SQL is the __________ statement.
A. GROUP BY
B. INSERT INTO
C. SELECT
D. VALUES
Ans: C

12. PostgreSQL is
A. a relational database management system.
B. a hierarchical database management system.
C. a network-type database management system.
D. an XML database management system.
Ans: A

13. PostgreSQL is:
A. An open-source SMTP server.
B. A NoSQL solution.
C. Enterprise-class proprietary software developed at Bell Labs, with a basic set of features.
D. An open-source ORDBMS developed at UC Berkley, which supports many modern features.
Ans: D

14. When retrieving data in a particular table, we use the_____________ statement.
A. \dt
B. ORDER BY
C. SELECT FROM
D. \i
Ans: C

15. We add data to PostgreSQL by using which statement?
A. INSERT
B. ADD
C. UPDATE
D. SELECT
Ans: A

16. PostgreSQL used what model of communication?
A. Client/Server
B. Network
C. Peer-to-Peer
D. Push Model
Ans: A

17. With PostgreSQL, you can access data by
A. Use function calls (APIs) to prepare and execute SQL statements, scan result sets, and perform updates from a large variety of different programming languages.
B. Use a command-line application to execute SQL statements
C. All of these
D. Embed SQL directly into your application
Ans: C

18. PostgreSQL has many modern features including:
A. Complex SQL queries
B. SQL Sub-selects
C. All of the above
D. Views
Ans: C

19. The SQL condition for pattern matching is?
A. IN
B. LIKE
C. DISTINCT
D. BETWEEN
Ans: B

20. What is the wrapper around the SQL command CREATE DATABASE?
A. newdb
B. add_DB
C. NEW_DB
D. createdb
Ans: D

PostgreSQL runs on:
A. all major operating systems, including Linux, UNIX (AIX, BSD, HP-UX, SGI IRIX, Mac OS X, Solaris, Tru64), and Windows.
B. on all UNIX versions except Solaris.
C. Linux and Windows only.
D. Windows only
Ans: A

What command tells PostgreSQL that all of the changes you made to a database should become permanent?
A. Apply
B. Execute
C. Commit
D. Send
Ans: C

PostgreSQL can be installed?
A. on a Windows computer via the PostgreSQL installer
B. from Linux binaries
C. All of these
D. from the source code
Ans: C

____________ allow us to define formally in the database how different tables relate to each other.
A. Views
B. temporary tables
C. Foreign Key Constraints
D. table management
Ans: C

Triggers can be configured to execute when which of the following operations are performed:
A. All of the above
B. INSERT statements
C. UPDATE statements
D. DELETE statements
Ans: A

WAL stands for:
A. Write Ahead Log
B. Write Ahead List
C. Write Anywhere List
D. Write Anywhere Logging
Ans: A

Deadlocks occur when:
A. Two users are connected to the same database at the same time.
B. Two transactions hold exclusive locks on resources they both need.
C. Two users try to access the same table at the same time.
D. Data is being written to the same cell by separate processes at the same time.
Ans: B

Tablespaces:
A. Allow an administrator to designate specific locations in a file system where database objects can be stored.
B. Are a fancy name for table.
C. Are the amount of disk space a table is using.
D. Are the width, or number of columns, of a particular table.
Ans: A

If you don’t specify ASC or DESC, PostgreSQL will assume you want to see results:
A. in ascending order
B. grouped together by field type
C. in a random order
D. in descending order
Ans: A

True or false: With table inheritance, not null and check constraints are inherited.
A. False
B. True
Ans: B

True or False: A tablespace is the place where database objects are stored on disk.
A. False
B. True
Ans: B

True or False? ALTER TABLE may be issued while a VACUUM process is running.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

True or False? PostgreSQL is so lightweight that performance and reliability are not affected by hardware.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

A VACUUM operation is used:
A. To recover or reuse disk space occupied by updated or deleted rows.
B. To protect against loss of very old data due to transaction ID wraparound.
C. To update data statistics used by the PostgreSQL query planner.
D. All of these
Ans: D

True or False? Within a table, a single column may be encrypted.
A. True
B. False
Ans: A

The core PostgreSQL source code includes what interfaces?
A. Ruby and PHP interfaces
B. C++ and Java interfaces
C. The C and embedded C interfaces
D. VB and VB.NET interfaces
Ans: C

Unless you specify NOT NULL, PostgreSQL will assume that a column is:
A. Required
B. Optional
C. Integers
D. Text
Ans: B

Query trees can be viewed in the server logs as long as which of the following configuration parameters are enabled?
A. debug_print_parse
B. debug_print_plan
C. All of these
D. debug_print_rewritten
Ans: C

To describe a table in PostgreSQL which of the following is correct:
A. psql> \D table_name
B. psql> describe table_name
C. psql> DESCRIBE table_name
D. psql> \d table_name
Ans: D

The value NULL, in database terminology, means?
A. All of these
B. The value is undetermined at this time
C. The value is undetermined
D. The value is not relevant for this particular row.
Ans: A

To create a database in PostgreSQL, you must have the special CREATEDB privilege or
A. be an admin
B. have a script do it.
C. be a superuser.
D. the special CREATETBL privilege
Ans: C

What does the following statement do? CREATE INDEX lower_title_idx ON books ((lower(title)));
A. Modifies an index in place to be lowercase
B. Creates a new index with a special operator class ‘lower’ for case insensitive comparisons.
C. Creates an index for efficient case-insensitive searches on the titles column within the books table
D. Nothing, it’s invalid SQL
E. Creates a non-write-locking index
Ans: C

What command allows you to edit PostgreSQL queries in your favorite editor ?
A. \ed
B. edit sql #go
C. \e
D. \edit
Ans: C

To prevent transaction wraparound, a VACUUM operation should be run on every table no less than once every:
A. 2 billion transactions
B. 5 billion transactions
C. 4 billion transactions
D. 3 billion transactions
Ans: A

The rule system:
A. Operates between the parser and the planner.
B. None of these
C. Takes the output of the parser, one query tree, and the user-defined rewrite rules, which are also query trees with some extra information, and creates zero or more query trees as result.
D. All of these
Ans: D

Asynchronous Commits:
A. None of these
B. All of these
C. Allow transactions to complete more quickly
D. May cause recent transactions to be lost
Ans: B

When looking at ‘ps’ output on a unix system, you see the following: postgres 1016 0.1 2.4 6532 3080 pts/1 SN 13:19 0:00 postgres: tgl regression [local] idle in transaction What does “idle in transaction” mean?
A. The server is idle, awaiting a client connection.
B. A transaction is possibly hung.
C. A user issued an IDLE statement to the database.
D. A client is connected, and the server is awaiting input.
Ans: D

True or False? Only the administrator can make use of tablespaces.
A. True
B. False
Ans: B

This is used to determine how text is stored and sorted within PostgreSQL?
A. Collations
B. Index
C. Data Types
D. Database
Ans: A

Which statement is true about PostgreSQL data types?
A. A large object data type can be used to store data of unlimited size.
B. Only the INTEGER type can be declared as an array.
C. n’in CHARACTER(n) represents the number of bytes.
D. There is a non-standard PostgreSQL data type, called Geometric data type, which handles 2-dimensional data.
Ans: D

What command turns on timing?
A. \on timing
B. \start time
C. \time start
D. \timing
Ans: D

Advisory locks are allocated out of a shared memory pool whose size is defined by the configuration variables….
A. All of these
B. None of these
C. max_connections
D. max_locks_per_transaction
Ans: A

To restore a PostgreSQL backup created with pg_dump, the following may be used:
A. $ psql -F database_dump.psql database_name
B. $ psql -R database_dump.psql database_name
C. $ psql -f database_dump.psql database_name
D. $ psql -r database_dump.psql database_name
Ans: C

In order to echo all input from script, you use the ________ psql command.
A. -a
B. -A
C. -l
D. -E
Ans: A

True or False? Dynamic Tracing is enabled by default at compile time.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

Bob works for StegaCorp. His workstation’s IP address is 10.5.34.8. He needs access to a database called “partners” directly from his workstation. Which of the following is the correct entry in pg_hba.conf?
A. host partners bob 10.5.34.8/24 krb5
B. host partners bob 10.5.34.8/32 kerb5
C. host partners bob 10.5.34.8 kerb5
D. host partners bob 10.5.34.8/32 krb5
Ans: D

What does MCV stand for?
A. Massive Checkpoint Vault
B. Most Common Values
C. Most Common Variables
D. Many Common Variables
Ans: B

By default, in what subdirectory of the database data directory are WAL logs contained?
A. pg-xlog
B. pg-log
C. pg_log
D. pg_xlog
Ans: D

Which is NOT true of array indexes?
A. Partial functional indexes of arrays are supported on Btree, GiST, and GIN indexes.
B. By default PostgreSQL indexes arrays so that inner elements can be searched.
C. GIN indexes can search for arrays containing specific elements.
D. BTree indexes can search for array elements as long as the match begins with the beginning of the array.
E. GiST indexes can be used to select arrays for specific values.
Ans: B

True or False? PostgreSQL supports Index Only Scans.
A. False
B. True
Ans: B

What is “index bloat”?
A. Index filling up with keys.
B. No-longer-needed keys in an index aren’t reclaimed, therefore increasing space required to store an index, as well as time it takes to scan.
C. Indexing inefficiently, like choosing to index timestamps in a table.
D. Indexing too many tables, resulting in inefficient database performance.
Ans: B

What are the join strategies available to the postgreSQL planner when a SELECT query contains two or more relations?
A. Nested Loop Join, Merge Join, Hash Join
B. MERGE, JOIN
C. INNER JOIN, OUTER JOIN
D. MERGE, INNER JOIN, OUTER JOIN
Ans: A

To copy a database from server1 to server2, you might use which of the following:
A. pg_mv -h server1 database | pgsql -h server2 database
B. pg_dump -h server1 database > pgsql -h server2 database
C. pg_copy -h server1 database | psql -h server2 database
D. pg_dump -h server1 database | psql -h server2 database
Ans: D

Which of the following is not a valid integer array?
A. ‘{}’
B. ‘{1,3,4,5,{6,7}}’
C. ‘{{1,2},{1,3},{1,4},{2,5}}’
D. ‘{1,3,4,5,6,7}’
E. ‘{{1,2,3,4,5,6}}’
Ans: B

What is the difference between DO ‘some code…’ and EXECUTE ‘some code…’ statements?
A. DO lets you execute some plPgSql code without saving it to database and EXECUTE lets you execute DDL or DML only
B. EXECUTE statement executes only prepared code, and DO can execute without PREPARE statement
C. No difference – they both need a preparation for execution
D. DO prepares a statement and EXECUTE executes it
E. No difference – they both can execute a code without preparation
Ans: A

True or False? To increase server performance, automated CHECKPOINT operations should be setup in cron or Task Scheduler.
A. True
B. False
Ans: B

The syntax to view the indexes of an existing postgreSQL table is:
A. # index database_name.table_name
B. # \d table_name
C. # \i table_name
D. # index table_name
Ans: B

Locks are recorded in:
A. pg_lock system logs
B. pg_locks system view
C. pg_locks system logs
D. pg_lock system table
Ans: B

True or false? Hash indexes are not crash-safe
A. True
B. False
Ans: B

True or False? When restoring a database backed up with pg_dump, it’s generally a good idea to enable WAL.
A. True
B. False
Ans: B

True or false: When a table is created which uses a table name as a column type, not null constraints on the column type’s table definition are honored by the including table.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

90. Which statement is not true about a PostgreSQL domain?
A. A domain is created by ‘CREATE DOMAIN’.
B. A domain can be used as a column type when defining a table.
C. Domain is a namespace existing between databases and objects such as tables.
D. When defining a domain, you can add a default value and constraints to the original data.
Ans: C

91. The extension used for data encryption/decryption within PostgreSQL is:
A. crypto
B. pgcrypt
C. pgcrypto
D. pgencrypt
Ans: C

92. Which of the following is NOT a feature of user defined functions?
A. They can be written in various different languages
B. Functions marked IMMUTABLE can have their output indexed
C. They can return multiple result sets via refcursors
D. They can perform most database management tasks
E. They can initiate subtransactions
Ans: E

93. To create a database that supports UTF-8, the following command can be used:
A. createdb -E UTF-8 -O user database_name
B. createdb -E UTF8 -O user database_name
C. createdb -C UTF8 database_name
D. createdb -C UTF8 -O user database_name
Ans: B

94. What is a TOAST file?
A. A list of clients not allowed to connect to the database.
B. A file storing data that was unable to be written to the database, and will be expunged once the server shuts down.
C. A file containing values too wide to fit comfortably in the main table
D. A file containining transactions which were unsuccessfully completed due to errors.
Ans: C

95. True or False: PostgreSQL allows you to implement table inheritance. This should be defined with the special keyword INHERITIS in the table design.
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

96. WAL segment size is determined:
A. By the configure script at compile time
B. By the wal_segment_size configuration parameter in postgresql.conf
C. By the administrator at runtime, or through the startup script.
D. It is statically set within the source code.
Ans: A

97. The __________ database model has the advantage of being able to quickly discover all of the records of one type that are related to a specific record of another type by following the pointers from the starting record.
A. relational
B. network
C. hierarchical
D. structured
Ans: B

98. When identifying rows uniquely, we use__________keys.
A. command
B. surrogate
C. standard
D. unique
Ans: B

99. True or false: With table inheritance child tables inherit primary and foreign key definitions from their parents
A. False
B. True
Ans: A

100. True or False? To enable continuous archiving, all you have to do is set archive_mode to ‘on’ in postgresql.conf
A. True
B. False
Ans: B

100 TOP PostgreSQL Interview Questions and Answers

PostgreSQL Interview Questions :-

1. Define what is PostgreSQL?
This is regarded as one of the most successful open source database in the world. This is also used to create advanced applications. This relies on Object relational database management system. Familiarity with UNIX and Linux can be an added advantage while using PostgreSQL.

2. State some of the advanced features of PostgreSQL?
These are the following features which are present in PostgreSQL they are

  1. Object relational database
  2. Extensibility and support for SQL
  3. Database validation and flexible API
  4. Procedural languages and MVCC
  5. Client server and WAL.

3. Explain about Write Ahead logging?
This feature increases the reliability of the database by logging changes before any changes or updations to the data base. This provides log of database incase of a database crash. This helps to start the work from the point it was discontinued.

4. Explain about Multi version concurrency control?
Multi version concurrency control or MVCC is used to avoid unnecessary locking of the database. This removes the time lag for the user to log into his database. This feature or time lag occurs when some one else is on the content. All the transactions are kept as a record.

5. How to start the database server?
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/010.pgsql.sh start
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql start

PostgreSQL Interview Questions and Answers
PostgreSQL Interview Questions

6. How to stop the database server?
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/010.pgsql.sh stop
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql stop

7. How to check whether PostgreSQL server is up and running?
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/010.pgsql.sh status
/usr/local/etc/rc.d/postgresql status?

8. Define what are the languages which PostgreSQL supports?
Some of the languages which PostgreSQL supports are as follows: –
It supports a language of its own known as PL/pgSQL and it supports internal procedural languages. Pl/pgSQL can be compared to oracle, PL/SQL, etc. Languages such as Perl, Python, TCL can be used as embedded languages.

9. Explain about the command enable debug?
This command is used for enabling compilation of all libraries and applications. This process generally slows down the system and it also increases the binary file size. Debugging symbols are present which can assist developers in noticing bugs and problems associated with their script.

10. Explain about functions in PostgreSQL?
Functions are important because they help the code to be executed on the server. Some of the languages which can program functions for efficient use are PL/pgSQL which is the native language of PostgreSQL. Scripting languages are supported by many languages such as PHP, Perl, Python, etc. PL/R a statistical language can also be used.

11. Explain about indices of PostgreSQL?
There are built in functions such as B-tree, hash table, and GIST indices can be used or users can define their own indices. PostgreSQL can scan the index backwards. Expression index could be created with the result of an expression. Partial index created with addition of WHERE clause.

12. Explain about Triggers?
By SQL query you can trigger an event. Triggers can be activated with the help of INSERT and UPDATE queries. These can be attached to tables. Triggers more than one can be triggered alphabetically. These triggers have the capability to invoke functions from other languages.

13. Define what are the different data types supported by PostgreSQL?
There are different data types which are supported they are: –

  • Arbitrary precision numeric’s
  • Geometric primitives
  • Arrays
  • XML etc

Users can create their own indexes and make them indexed.

14. Explain about database administration tools?
There are various data administration tools they are

  • Psql
  • Pgadmin
  • Phppgadmin

Most of these tools are front end administration tools and web based interfaces. Out of these phppgadmin is the most popular one.

15. Explain about pgadmin?
Pgadmin forms a graphical front end administration tool. This feature is available under free software released under Artistic License. Pgadmin iii is the new database administration tool released under artistic license.

PostgreSQL Questions Pdf Free Download ::

16. How do you create a data base with postgreSQL?
Creating a database is the primary step in creating a database. A command
$createdb newdatabasedb
CREATE DATABASE
This creates a new database and a message displays CREATE DATABASE which indicates that the creation of the database was successful.

17. Define what are the various enhancements to the straight relational data model by PostgreSQL?
There are various enhancements provided to the straight relational data model by postgre SQl they are support for arrays which includes multiple values, inheritance, functions and extensibility. Jargon differs because of its object oriented nature where tables are called as classes.

18. Explain about tokens?
Tokens are also known to contain several special character symbols. It can be considered as keyword, constant, identifier and quoted identifier. Keywords include pre defined SQL meanings and SQL commands. Variable names such as tables, columns, etc are represented by identifiers.

19. Explain about string constants?
String constant contains a sequence of characters bound by single quotes. This feature is used during insertion of a character or passing character to database objects. PostgreSQL allows the usage of single quotes but embedded by a C style backslash. This feature is important in parsing data.

21. Explain about concurreny with the help of MVCC?
Multi version concurrency control is used to manage concurrency. This feature is very useful because changes made in the database will not be visible to other users until the transaction is completed. This removes the need for read locks. ACID principles are given a further boost by this feature and can be implemented in general.

22. How to created a database?
/usr/local/bin/createdb mydatabase

23. How to list the number of database?
su -l pgsql
psql -l

24. How to take backup of database?
/usr/local/bin/pg_dump mydatabase > mydatabase.pgdump

25. How to create a PostgreSQL user?
CREATE USER usr WITH password ‘password’

PostgreSQL Faqs ::

100 TOP GWT Interview Questions and Answers

GWT Interview Questions :-

1. Define What is GWT?
Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is a development toolkit for building and optimizing complex browser-based applications. GWT is used by many products at Google, including Google AdWords and Orkut.

2. What are the features of GWT?
Following are the features of GWT −

  • Google Web Toolkit (GWT) is a development toolkit to create RICH Internet Application(RIA).
  • GWT provides developers option to write client side application in JAVA.
  • GWT compiles the code written in JAVA to JavaScript code.
  • Application written in GWT is cross-browser compliant. GWT automatically generates javascript code suitable for each browser.
  • GWT is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world. It is licensed under the Apache License version 2.0.

3. What are the core components of GWT?
Following are the core components of GWT −

  1. GWT Java to JavaScript compiler :− This is the most important part of GWT which makes it a powerful tool for building RIAs. The GWT compiler is used to translate all the application code written in Java into JavaScript.
  2. JRE Emulation library :− Google Web Toolkit includes a library that emulates a subset of the Java runtime library. The list includes java.lang, java.lang.annotation, java.math, java.io, java.sql, java.util and java.util.logging.
  3. GWT UI building library :− This part of GWT consists of many subparts which includes the actual UI components, RPC support, History management, and much more.
  4. GWT Hosted Web Browser :− GWT Hosted Web Browser lets you run and execute your GWT applications in hosted mode, where your code runs as Java in the Java Virtual Machine without compiling to JavaScript.

4. What is Module descriptor in GWT?
A module descriptor is the configuration file in the form of XML which is used to configure a GWT application. A module descriptor file extension is *.gwt.xml, where * is the name of the application and this file should reside in the project’s root.

5. What is the purpose of ‘module’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
This provides name of the application.

GWT Interview Questions and Answers
GWT Interview Questions

6. What is the purpose of ‘inherits’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
This adds other gwt module in application just like import does in java applications. Any number of modules can be inherited in this manner.

7. What is the purpose of ‘entry-point’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
This specifies the name of class which will start loading the GWT Application.

8. Can you have multiple entry-point classes in a *.gwt.xml file?
Yes! Any number of entry-point classes can be added.

9. Which method of a entry-point class is called when GWT application starts?
onModuleLoad() function gets called and acts similar to main method of a java application.

10. How onModuleLoad() functions get called if multiple entry-point classes are specified in *.gwt.xml?
They are called sequentially in the order in which entry-point classes appear in the module file. So when the onModuleLoad() of your first entry point finishes, the next entry point is called immediately.

11. What is the purpose of ‘source’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
This specifies the names of source folders which GWT compiler will search for source compilation.

12. What is the purpose of ‘public’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
The public path is the place in your project where static resources referenced by your GWT module, such as CSS or images, are stored.

13. What is default public path for static resources in GWT application?
The default public path is the public subdirectory underneath where the Module XML File is stored.

14.What is the purpose of ‘script’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
Automatically injects the external JavaScript file located at the location specified by src.

15. What is the purpose of ‘stylesheet’ tag in *.gwt.xml file in GWT?
Automatically injects the external CSS file located at the location specified by src.

16. What is an entry-point class?
A module entry-point is any class that is assignable to EntryPoint and that can be constructed without parameters. When a module is loaded, every entry point class is instantiated and its EntryPoint.onModuleLoad() method gets called.

17. What is *.nocache.js file in GWT?
It contains the javascript code required to resolve deferred binding configuarations (for example, browser detection) and to use lookup table generated by GWT compiler to locate one of the .cache.html.

18. What is .cache.html file in GWT?
It contains the actual program of a GWT application.

19. Explain bootstrap procedure for GWT application.
Following are the steps of bootstrap proceure for GWT application when a browser loads the GWT application −

  • Browser loads the host html page and .nocache.js file.
  • Browser executes the .nocache.js file’s javascript code.
  • .nocache.js code resolves deferred binding configuarations (for example, browser detection) and use lookup table generated by GWT compiler to locate one of the .cache.html.
  • .nocache.js code then creates a html hidden iframe, inserts that iframe into the host page’s DOM, and loads the .cache.html file into the same iframe.
  • .cache.html contains the actual program of a GWT application and once loaded in iframe shows the GWT application in the browser.

20.Why should a .nocache.js file never be cached?
GWT compiler generates .nocache.js file every time with the same name whenever a GWT application is compiled. So browser should always download the .nocache.js file to get the latest gwt application. gwt.js code actually appends a unique timestamp at the end of the file name so that browser always treat it a new file and should never cache it.

21.What is the purpose of Host Page?
The most important public resource is host page which is used to invoke actual GWT application. A typical HTML host page for an application might not include any visible HTML body content at all but it is always expected to include GWT application via a <script…/> tag.

22.What is the default style name of any GWT widget?
By default, the class name for each component is gwt-<classname>. For example, the Button widget has a default style of gwt-Button and similar way TextBox widgest has a default style of gwt-TextBox.

23.Do GWT compiler creates default Id attribute for its Widget by default?
No! By default, neither the browser nor GWT creates default id attributes for widgets.

24.What is the purpose of setStyleName() function of a GWT widget?
This method will clear any existing styles and set the widget style to the new CSS class provided using style.

25.What is the purpose of addStyleName() function of a GWT widget?
This method will add a secondary or dependent style name to the widget. A secondary style name is an additional style name that is,so if there were any previous style names applied they are kept.

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26.What is the purpose of removeStyleName() function of a GWT widget?
This method will remove given style from the widget and leaves any others associated with the widget.

27.What is the purpose of getStyleName() function of a GWT widget?
This method gets all of the object’s style names, as a space-separated list.

28.What is the purpose of setStylePrimaryName() function of a GWT widget?
This method sets the object’s primary style name and updates all dependent style names.

29.What is the difference between primary style and secondary styles of a GWT Widget?
By default, the primary style name of a widget will be the default style name for its widget class. For example, gwt-Button for Button widgets. When we add and remove style names using AddStyleName() method, those styles are called secondary styles.

The final appearance of a widget is determined by the sum of all the secondary styles added to it, plus its primary style. You set the primary style of a widget with the setStylePrimaryName(String) method.

30.How you can attach a CSS file with your GWT module?
There are multiple approaches for associating CSS files with your module. Modern GWT applications typically use a combination of CssResource and UiBinder.

Using a <link> tag in the host HTML page.

Using the <stylesheet> element in the module XML file.

Using a CssResource contained within a ClientBundle.

Using an inline <ui:style> element in a UiBinder template.

31. Which class is the superclass of all user-interface classes?
The class UIObject is the superclass for all user-interface objects.

32. Define UIObject class.
The class UIObject is the superclass for all user-interface objects. It simply wraps a DOM element, and cannot receive events. It provides direct child classes like Widget, MenuItem, MenuItemSeparator, TreeItem.

All UIObject objects can be styled using CSS.

Every UIObject has a primary style name that identifies the key CSS style rule that should always be applied to it.

More complex styling behavior can be achieved by manipulating an object’s secondary style names.

33. Define Widget class ?
The class Widget is the base class for the majority of user-interface objects. Widget adds support for receiving events from the browser and being added directly to panels.

34.What is the purpose of Label widget of a GWT?
This widget contains text, not interpreted as HTML using a <div>element, causing it to be displayed with block layout.

35.What is the purpose of HTML widget of a GWT?
This widget can contain HTML text and displays the html content using a <div> element, causing it to be displayed with block layout.

36.What is the purpose of Image widget of a GWT?
This widget displays an image at a given URL.

37.What is the purpose of Anchor widget of GWT?
This widget represents a simple <a> element.

38..Which widget represents a standard push button in GWT?
Button widget represents a standard push button.

39Which widget represents a normal push button with custom styling in GWT?
PushButton represents a normal push button with custom styling.

40.Which widget represents a stylish stateful button which allows the user to toggle between up and down states in GWT?
ToggleButton widget represents a stylish stateful button which allows the user to toggle between up and down states.

41.Which widget represents a standard check box widget. This class also serves as a base class for RadioButton in GWT?
CheckBox widget represents a standard check box widget. This class also serves as a base class for RadioButton.

42.Which widget represents a mutually-exclusive selection radio button widget in GWT?
RadioButton widget represents a mutually-exclusive selection radio button widget.

43.Which widget represents a list of choices to the user, either as a list box or as a drop-down list in GWT?
ListBox widget represents a list of choices to the user, either as a list box or as a drop-down list.

44.Which widget acts as a suggestion box in GWT?
SuggestBox widget represents a text box or text area which displays a pre-configured set of selections that match the user’s input. Each SuggestBox is associated with a single SuggestOracle. The SuggestOracle is used to provide a set of selections given a specific query string.

45.Which widget represents a single line text box in GWT?
TextBox widget represents a single line text box.

46.Which widget represents a password text box in GWT?
PasswordTextBox widget represents a text box that visually masks its input to prevent eavesdropping.

47.Which widget represents a multiline text box in GWT?
TextArea widget represents a text box that allows multiple lines of text to be entered.

48.Which widget represents a rich text editor in GWT?
RichTextArea widget represents a rich text editor that allows complex styling and formatting.

49.Which widget represents a file upload in GWT?
FileUpload widget wraps the HTML <input type=’file’> element.

50.Which widget represents a hidden field in GWT?
Hidden widget represets a hidden field in an HTML form.

GWT Faqs ::

100 TOP MIDDLEWARE Interview Questions and Answers

MIDDLEWARE Interview Questions :-

1. What is Client/Server?
Client : The client hardware is the desktop machine that runs client software. It could be a micro
or a workstation. The client software formulates data request and passes the request to the
network software. This software sends the request to the server, accepts the result from the server
and passes the request back to the client software.
Server : A server is the machine that runs data management software that has been designed for
server functionality. A server has operating system software, data management software and a
portion of the network software.

2. Explain File server?
File Server : File servers manage a work group’s applications and data files, so that they may
be shared by the group. File servers are very I/O oriented. They pull large amounts of data
off their storage subsystems and pass the data over the network. When the data from the file
is requested, a file server transmit all records from the file.

3. What is meant by HTTP and ODBC?

  1. ODBC : Open database connectivity is a windows technology that lets a database
    client application connect to a external database. To use ODBC, the database
    vendor must provide an ODBC driver for data access.
  2. HTTP : Hyper Text Transfer Protocol is the underlying protocol used by the
    world wide web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted and
    what action web servers and browsers should take in response to various
    commands. HTTP only supports transmission of text.

4. Explain the services provided by Web server.
Web server : A webserver is a computer system that delivers web pages. Every web server
has an IP address and possibly a domain name. for example an URL:
http://www.niceindia.com/index.html in our browser. This sends a request to the server
whose domain name is niceindia.com. the server fetches the page named index.html and
sends back to our browsers.

5. Explain TCP/IP and IPx/SPx.
TCP/IP : Transfer control Protocol and Internet Protocol.

MIDDLEWARE Interview Questions and Answers
MIDDLEWARE Interview Questions

6. What is Remote Procedure Call?
Remote Procedure Call (RPC): One of the earliest facilities that was created to help programmers
write client/server software is known generically as a Remote Procedure Call mechanism. When
implementing a program, the programmer uses procedures to keep the code manageable. Instead
of defining a single, large procedure that performs many tasks, the programmer divides the tasks
into sets and uses shorter procedure to handle each set. A client procedure process calls a
function on a remote server and suspends itself until it gets back the result. This process that
issues the calls and waits until it gets the result is called remote procedure call.

7. What are the different categories of client/Server applications?
Classes of client/server applications: Client/Server applications can be categorized by class,
based on where most of the processing is done. Each class requires different hardware and
software capabilities on the client, the server and the network.

  • Host-Based Processing
  • Client-Based Processing
  • Coopeartive Processing

8. What is meant by Client, Server & Network?

  • Client : The client hardware is the desktop machine that runs client software. It could be a micro
    or a workstation. The client software formulates data request and passes the request to the
    network software. This software sends the request to the server, accepts the result from the server
    and passes the request back to the client software.
  • Server : A server is the machine that runs data management software that has been designed for
    server functionality. A server has operating system software, data management software and a
    portion of the network software.
  • Network : The network hardware is the cabling, the communication cards and the devices that
    link the servers and the clients.

9. Explain Application server.
Application Server : Application server, which provides specific application services to an
application. Application servers are the type of middleware, which occupy a large chunk of
computing territory between database servers and end users.

MIDDLEWARE Questions Pdf Free Download ::

11. Explain Group Server ?
Groupware Server : A Groupware server is a software designed to enable users to
collaborate, regardless of location through the internet or a corporate intranet and to work
together in a virtual atmosphere.

12. Explain TCP/IP and IPx/SPx.
TCP/IP : Transfer control Protocol and Internet Protocol.

13. What is Peer-to-Peer communication?
Peer-to-Peer : Most early client/server applications were implemented using low level
conversational peer-to-peer products. The term peer-to-peer indicates that the two sides of a
communication link use the same protocol interface to conduct a networked conversation. Any
computer can initiate a conversation with any other computer. A peer-to-peer network
relationship defines one in which computer on the network communicate with each other as
equals. Each computer is responsible for making its own resources available.

14. What are the different categories of client/Server applications?

  1. Host-Based Processing
  2. Client-Based Processing
  3. Coopeartive Processing

15. What is Server & Network?

  • Server : A server is the machine that runs data management software that has been designed for
    server functionality. A server has operating system software, data management software and a
    portion of the network software.
  • Network : The network hardware is the cabling, the communication cards and the devices that
    link the servers and the clients.

16. What is meant by Client & Network?

  • Client : The client hardware is the desktop machine that runs client software. It could be a micro
    or a workstation. The client software formulates data request and passes the request to the
    network software. This software sends the request to the server, accepts the result from the server
    and passes the request back to the client software.
  • Network : The network hardware is the cabling, the communication cards and the devices that
    link the servers and the clients.

17. What is Application server ?
Application servers, which provide specific application services to an application. An
example is a server that runs a database that a distributed application users.
Application servers are the type of middleware, which occupy a large chunk of computing
territory between database servers and end users, and they often connect the two.

18. What is Database servers ?
Database servers, which provide database storage and data sharing with other computers in
the network. Database servers more and store data records or databases over corporate networks
and across the internet.

19. What is Group Server ?
A Groupware server is a software designated to enable users to collaborate, regardless of
location through the internet or a corporate intranet and to work together in a virtual atmosphere.

20. What is Web Server ?
A Web Server is a computer system that delivers web pages. Every web server has an IP address and possibly a domain name.

MIDDLEWARE FAqs ::